A framework for evaluation and design of an integrated by Carl Henrik Hall.

By Carl Henrik Hall.

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1995), are well suited to use for planning the demand responsive part of an integrated journey, in the case of a static planning situation. The integrated service is intended to be used in such a way that a user can travel with the demand responsive service to a transfer point connecting the demand responsive service to the bus network. Transfer points are the bus stops at which it is possible to change between a demand responsive vehicle and a fixed route bus, and vice versa. If necessary, the passenger can then transfer again from another transfer point in the bus network to a second demand responsive vehicle, operating in an other area of the city, and with this vehicle travel to the destination.

2003), presents a methodology for optimizing cost, service and environmental consequences of a dial-a-ride system. Results of simulations show that it is possible to reduce environmental impacts to a large extent at the same time as operating costs and service delays only are increased slightly. In Xiang et al. (2006) a quite realistic instance of the DARP is studied. This study includes a heterogeneous vehicle fleet and drivers with different qualifications. In practice, this is often the real situation.

Figure 8: The information flow in the framework How the different modules in the framework interact with each other can be seen from two different perspectives. The most common way, in which optimization and simulation tools are used in combination, is to first find an optimal solution to a specific case, and then simulate the effects of this solution. This is the first perspective. The other is to find a good overall design by the use of simulation, and then use optimization to find the best solution to a specific instance of the given design.

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