A Handbook of Management Techniques by Michael Armstrong

By Michael Armstrong

This consultant to trendy concepts in all fields of administration is a perfect better half for pro managers, in addition to a vital reference publication for enterprise and administration scholars. It comprises over a hundred systematic and analytical tools used to help in decision-making and to enhance potency and effectiveness.

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The aims are to impart information, to develop favourable attitudes to the product or service, and to generate sales. Media scheduling Media scheduling is the process of deciding what type of media to adopt (TV, radio, cinema advertising, press, internet). When deciding on the optimum media schedule, four factors should be considered: ᔢ Coverage (or reach), which is the percentage of the target market that will see the campaign at least once. ᔢ Frequency, which is the number of times each person will have an opportunity to see (OTS) or opportunity to hear (OTH).

Competitors’ prices and the prices of substitutes provide an intermediate point that the company has to consider in setting its price. Finally, demand has to be taken into account. The relative elasticity of demand will influence the extent to which the company can maintain the volume of unit sales after a price increase, or can increase sales by means of a cut in prices. REFERENCE 1. Winkler, J, Pricing for Results, Heinemann, London 1983. 26 This page intentionally left blank 27 5 Positioning DEFINITION Positioning is the process of reaching market segments.

Prospecting. Preparation. Opening. Requirement identification. Presentation/demonstration. Handling objectives. Negotiation. Close. Follow-up. ADVERTISING (ABOVE-THE-LINE PROMOTION) Media advertising to potential or existing customers is about the products or services on offer to them. The aims are to impart information, to develop favourable attitudes to the product or service, and to generate sales. Media scheduling Media scheduling is the process of deciding what type of media to adopt (TV, radio, cinema advertising, press, internet).

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