A History of Fascism, 1914-1945 by Stanley G. Payne

By Stanley G. Payne

Stanley G. Payne right here provides a whole heritage of fascism in interwar Europe, in addition to a survey of fascist idea and postwar fascism.

The writer examines all significant fascist events in addition to different kinds of authoritarian nationalism and gives a complete paintings on widely used fascism thus far. The e-book strains the phenomenon of fascism throughout the background of rules, past political events, and the occasions of the 1st global warfare. even supposing the focal point is mainly fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, the booklet additionally provides targeted realization to the Romanian Iron shield, Franco's Spain, Japan and proto-fascist hobbies round the globe.

The writer explores the explanations for either the bounds of fascism's allure and the ancient transcendence of the "fascist era".The inclusion of alternative different types of authoritarian nationalism lays a beginning for comparative research and ends up in a extra attainable definition of authoritarianism.

It may be valuable interpreting for college students learning the increase of totalitarianism in twentieth-century Europe and for these enthusiastic about the increase of ultranationalism this present day.

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This was the burden of another French aristocrat, Comte Georges Vacher de Lapouge, who extensively disseminated racial doctrines in France during the late nineteenth century. Vacher de Lapouge specifically demonized Jews, whom he believed were more dangerous than yellow or black people because of their internal roles within European society. The adoption of racial thought for political purposes soon became most extensive in German-speaking central Europe. It went beyond the rather simple black-white dichotomies common to the English-speaking world and developed into doctrines of “mystical racism” that created sharp distinctions and categories among the various white peoples of Europe, to establish the absolute superiority of Aryan, “Nordic,” or Germanic Europeans as distinct from Slavs, Latins, or Balkan peoples.

From the neo-vitalistic biology of Hans Driesch, the “Umwelt” ethology of Jacob von Uexküll, the “personalistic” psychology of William Stern,…the probings of the zoologist Karl von Frisch into the inner world of bees and fish, the existential 3. Contrary to what was often claimed after the rise of Nazism, Nietzsche was not himself a fascist generally and certainly not a Nazi specifically, even though aspects of his thought did contribute to fascist doctrine. Howard, “Nietzsche and Fascism,” History of European Ideas 11 (1989): 893–99.

28 PART I: HISTORY framework, and they all maintained in theory the universalist schema and the rationalist, materialist organization of Marxism. The revolutionary revision of Marxism in France and Italy went much further. This was pioneered by the retired French engineer Georges Sorel, who, in a series of writings after 1901, proposed a fundamental alteration of socialism. He held that the “decadence” of current Marxism could be overcome by restructuring revolutionary socialism in three different dimensions: economically, the free market and free competition must be accepted and affirmed, for that would result in a more developed and modern economy and also in sharpened competition between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, helping eventually to promote the emancipation of the latter; culturally, revolutionary socialism must espouse a new culture and psychology which recognized the importance of moral and emotional forces and the motivating power of idealism and myth; and politically, revolutionary socialism must totally reject the parliamentary trap of liberal democracy in favor of direct action.

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