By John F. O'Hanlon
Within the decade and a part because the booklet of the second one version of A User?s consultant to hoover expertise there were many vital advances within the box, together with spinning rotor gauges, dry mechanical pumps, magnetically levitated faster pumps, and ultraclean method designs. those, besides enhanced cleansing and meeting strategies have made contamination-free production a truth. Designed to bridge the space in either wisdom and coaching among designers and finish clients of vacuum apparatus, the 3rd variation bargains a pragmatic viewpoint on today?s vacuum expertise. With a spotlight at the operation, realizing, and choice of apparatus for business tactics utilized in semiconductor, optics, packaging, and comparable coating applied sciences, A User?s advisor to hoover know-how, 3rd version presents an in depth therapy of this crucial box. whereas emphasizing the basics and relating major subject matters now not accurately lined somewhere else, the textual content avoids themes no longer suitable to the common consumer.
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Additional info for A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology
5 illustrates two plane surfaces, one fixed and the other traveling in the x direction with a uniform velocity. 21) where F, is the force in the x direction, A, is the surface area in the x-z plane, and d d 4 is the rate of change of the gas velocity at this position between the two surfaces. Because the gas stream velocity increases as the moving plate is approached, those molecules crossing the plane Ax, from below (1 in Fig. 5) will transport less momentum across the plane than will those crossing the same plane from above (2 in Fig.
41x 10- Q(Pa - L/s) d (3 -7) In ordinary vacuum practice turbulent flow occurs infrequently. Reynolds' number can reach high values in the piping of a large roughing pump during the initial pumping phase. For a pipe 250 mm in diameter connected to a 47-L/s pump, R at atmospheric pressure is 16,000. Turbulent flow will exist whenever the pressure is greater than 1 . 5 ~ 1 0Pa ~ (100 Torr). 3 CONTINUUM FLOW 29 process debris that may reside on the chamber floor. The flow in the throttling orifice is turbulent at high pressures.
Reprinted with permission fromJ. Appl. , 31, p. 1169, D. H. Davis. Copyright 1960, The American Institute of Physics. 8 "O w A I Fig. 11 Molecular transmission probability of a frustum of a cone. Reprinted with permission from Trans. 9th Nutl. Vuc. , J. D. Pinson and A. W. Peck. Copyright 1962, Macmillan, New York, p. 407. 0' R. 896 Fig. 12 Molecular transmission probability of a parallel plate model. Reprinted with permission from Trans. 9th Nutl. Vuc. , J. D. Pinson and A. W. Peck. Copyright 1962, Macmillan, New York, p.