By Barbara Liskov, John V. Guttag
Abstraction and Specification in application improvement deals execs in application layout and software program engineering a technique that would allow them to build courses which are trustworthy and fairly effortless to appreciate, alter, and retain. stable programming contains the systematic mastery of complexity, and this e-book offers the 1st unified therapy of the suggestions of abstraction and specification, which, the authors argue, are the linchpin of any powerful method of programming. They position specific emphasis at the use of information abstraction to provide hugely modular courses. The authors specialise in the method of decomposing huge application initiatives into autonomous modules that may be assigned to self sustaining operating teams. They speak about equipment of decomposition, the categories of modules which are most precious during this procedure, and strategies to extend the chance that modules produced can in truth be recombined to resolve the unique programming challenge. there are numerous examples of abstractions through the textual content, and every bankruptcy ends with pertinent references and workouts. lots of the pattern implementations within the publication are written in CLU, one in every of more and more languages in a position to help info abstraction. enough fabric is incorporated, even though, to permit the reader to paintings in Pascal in addition. the fabric during this ebook was once built via the authors in the course of a decade of training undergraduate, graduate, and professional-level classes. Barbara Liskov, the developer of CLU, is Professor and John Guttag an affiliate Professor of desktop technological know-how at MIT. Abstraction and Specification in software improvement is integrated within the MIT electric Engineering and computing device technology sequence.
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The character set you choose affects what kind of encoding scheme will be used. This is important because different encoding schemes have different performance characteristics, and these characteristics can influence your database schema and application development requirements. The character set you choose will typically use one of the following types of encoding schemes: ■ ■ Single-Byte Encoding Schemes – 7-Bit Encoding Schemes – 8-Bit Encoding Schemes Multibyte Encoding Schemes – Fixed-Width Multibyte Encoding Schemes – Variable-Width Multibyte Encoding Schemes Single-Byte Encoding Schemes Single byte encoding schemes are the most efficient encoding schemes available.
What are the performance implications? ■ What are the restrictions? Several character sets may meet your current language requirements, but you should consider future language requirements as well. If you know that you will need to expand support in the future for different languages, picking a character set with a wider range now will prevent the need for migration later. The Oracle 2-10 Oracle9i Globalization Support Guide Choosing an Oracle Database Character Set character sets listed in Appendix A, "Locale Data" are named according to the languages and regions which are covered by a particular character set.
You may be required to use byte semantics in order to maintain compatibility with existing applications. NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS does not apply to tables in SYS and SYSTEM. The data dictionary will always use byte semantics. NLS_TERRITORY Parameter type: String Parameter scope: Initialization Parameter and ALTER SESSION Default value: Derived from NLS_LANG Range of values: Any valid territory name NLS_TERRITORY specifies the conventions for the following default date and numeric formatting characteristics: 3-10 Oracle9i Globalization Support Guide Language and Territory Parameters ■ Date format ■ Decimal character and group separator ■ Local currency symbol ■ ISO currency symbol ■ Dual currency symbol ■ Week start day ■ Credit and debit symbol ■ ISO week flag ■ List separator The value specified for NLS_TERRITORY in the initialization parameter file is the default for the instance.