By Claude Hagége
This pioneering examine is predicated on an research of over two hundred languages, together with African, Amerindian, Australian, Austronesian, Indo-European and Eurasian (Altaic, Caucasian, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Dravidian, Uralic), Papuan, and Sino-Tibetan. Adpositions are a virtually common a part of speech. English has prepositions; a few languages, akin to eastern, have postpositions; others have either; and but others varieties that aren't relatively both. As grammatical instruments they mark the connection among elements of a sentence: regularly one point governs a noun or noun-like notice or word whereas the opposite capabilities as a predicate. From the syntactic viewpoint, the supplement of an adposition will depend on a head: during this final sentence, for instance, a head is the supplement of on whereas on a head depends upon relies and on is the marker of this dependency. Adpositions lie on the center of the grammar of such a lot languages, their usefulness making them recurrent in daily speech and writing. Claude Hagege examines their morphological positive aspects, syntactic features, and semantic and cognitive homes. He does so for the subsets either one of adpositions that specific the family members of agent, sufferer, and beneficiary, and of these which mark house, time, accompaniment, or device. Adpositions usually govern case and are often steadily grammaticalized into case. the writer considers the complete set of functionality markers, together with case, that seem as adpositions and, in doing so, throws mild on strategies of morphological and syntactic switch in several languages and language households. His ebook could be welcomed by way of typologists and via syntacticians and morphologists of all theoretical stripes.
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Extra info for Adpositions
But besides having this syntactic point in common, they show many morphological differences. We have seen that Adp doubling is submitted to strong constraints. It is rare, although not unattested, for Adps to blend the indication of function with gender or number. And they do not often code core relations. Case affixes, on the other hand, can have these three roles, but they cannot be conjoined, nor appear without their governed term, nor be separated from it by other words or juxtaposed alone at the end of a sentence.
4). 1 Case heaping I propose to call case heaping a phenomenon involving adnominal complements marked by a succession of two or more contiguous case markers or case marker-like elements. Case heaping can be even more complex when further cases are added. GEN-DAT c to that of the man' (45) TURKISH (Turkic, Altaic, Turkey) (Plank 1995a: 91) adam-n-ki -ne man-GEN-NZR -DAT 'to that of the man' In (44) the genitive marks the possessor, and this, in turn, is marked by the dative, which is applied to the whole noun-phrase.
Adpositional clitics can be prepositional (proclitics) or postpositional (enclitics); both are fairly frequent in the languages of the world. Less often, they are circumpositional. Examples of prepositional clitics are Amharic and Russian; the latter is illustrated in (13): (13) RUSSIAN (Slavic, Indo-European, Russia) a. LOC £ he read everything in our letter' b. LOC c he read everything in this letter' c. LOC 'he read everything in the letter' While the Russian prepositional clitic v is attached to a noun in (13c), it is attached to a possessive adjective in (13a) and to a demonstrative adjective in (13b).