By Eric Freedman, Richard Shafer
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Extra info for After the Czars and Commissars: Journalism in Authoritarian Post-Soviet Central Asia
Working with the president, inner-circle ﬁnancial-industrial groups targeted their media against Rakhat Aliev, who had become a thorn in the president’s side. Critically, by 2007 Aliev had alienated most of Kazakhstan’s political and business elites—both in the inner circle and second tier—by strong-arm tactics to force others to cede their business holdings and by his naked ambition to become the next president (Sopranin 2007). 30 At this early point in the scandal, the response to the allegations against Aliev was predictable.
Androunas, Elena. 1993. Soviet Media in Transition: Structural and Economic Alternatives. Westport, CT: Praeger. Bailey, F. M. 1946. Mission to Tashkent. London: Jonathan Cape. Brown, Jeﬀ L. 1995. ” International Communication Gazette 54(3): 249–65. , and John C. Merrill. 2004. Global Journalism: Topical Issues and Media Systems, 4th ed. Boston: Pearson. Freedman, Eric, and Richard Shafer. 2003. ” Journal of Development Communication 14(2): 57–62. Hopkins, Mark W. 1970. Mass Media in the Soviet Union.
Zassoursky, Ivan. 2005. Media and Power in Post-Soviet Russia. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. PART 2 National Perspectives Oligarchs and Ownership: The Role of Financial-Industrial Groups in Controlling Kazakhstan’s “Independent” Media Barbara Junisbai K azakhstan is known for its authoritarian political system and the absence of guarantees protecting citizens’ fundamental rights, including freedom of speech and freedom of the press. Under the rule of president Nursultan Nazarbaev, who has been in power since 1989,1 a variety of mechanisms— formal and informal, legal and de facto—has been used to control the media and to limit political contestation.