Antichristdrama des Mittelalters der Reformation und by K. Aichele

By K. Aichele

Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaftigt sich ausschlieBlich mit dem Anti christdrama; Weltgerichtsspiele und sonstige eschatologische Spiele, wie etwa das Zehnjungfrauenspie1, sind nicht beriicksichtigt. Die Griinde dafiir sind erstens praktisch: die Gesamtheit der eschatologischen Spiele hatte nur in einem erheblich groBeren Rahmen behandelt werden konnen. AuBerdem stellen sich bei den Weltgerichtsspielen Fragen der Textkritik und der Uberlieferung, die bei den Antichristspielen iiberhaupt keine Rolle spielen, so daB in den beiden Fallen vollig verschiedene Arbeits methoden am Platz gewesen waren. 1m tibrigen lag mir daran, die Entwick lung des Antichristdramas tiber einen groBeren Zeitraum zu verfolgen, insbesondere im Zeitalter der Reformation, wo das Weltgerichtsspiel v611ig zurticktritt. Ich habe mich weiterhin auf das Antichrist-d ram a beschrankt. Die nichtdramatische Antichristdichtung ist noch so intestine wie unerschlossen, ein groBer Teil der Texte liegt nur in Handschriften vor. Ebenso steht es mit der F1ut der Prosaschriften tiber den Antichrist. Eine zusammen fassende Darstellung des gesamten Antichristschrifttums ist ohne die notigen detaillierten Vorarbeiten noch nicht moglich. Meine Untersuchung umfaBt den Zeitraum yom zwOlften Jahrhundert, in we1chem das erste Antichristdrama auftritt, bis zum Ende des DreiBig jahrigen Krieges. Nach der Mitte des siebzehnten Jahrhunderts scheint die Produktion von Antichristdramen abzuklingen, und das Thema lebt offenbar nur in der lokalen Volksspieltradition (besonders in Tirol) fortress.

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The result wasn’t even close. Despite the theological slogans of the time, Christ was not divided; but the Christian world certainly was, irreparably. Now, Christian divisions as such were not new. At least since the apostles left Jerusalem, at no point in Christian history has one single church plausibly claimed the loyalty of all believers to the exclusion of rival institutions. 20 Viewed historically, a denominationally divided world is not an exceptional circumstance for Christians, but the conventional norm.

He had suffered a devastating counterattack, culminating in a general council that came close to causing a schism throughout the Christian world; and he had been denounced, deposed, and utterly defeated. Three years. That time frame indicates the amazingly rapid communications still prevailing within the empire and the easy cultural transmission permitted by the Greek language. The Christian world might stretch from the Atlantic to Persia, but it could still look like a small village. But the speed with which the crisis evolved suggests that the issues were anything but new.

They believed that wrong conduct or heretical belief stirred God to anger, and that such anger would be expressed in highly material terms, in earthquake and fire, invasion and military defeat, famine and pestilence. Unless evildoers or wrong-believers were suppressed, society might perish altogether. In order to destroy those malevolent groups, activists took steps that look worldly, political, and cynical, but we can never truly separate those political acts from their compelling underlying motivation, which was supernatural.

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