Archaic Syntax in Indo-European: The Spread of Transitivity by Brigitte Bauer

By Brigitte Bauer

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1). Cf. (see also Kurzov 1993:129-131): *es expressing the idea of 'being' 'be' Gr. (< h *b uH expressing the idea of 'becoming' 'be' Gr. *staH expressing to idea of 'standing' 'stand' Gr. *or expressing the idea of 'rising' 'stand' Gr. *es expressing the idea of 'sitting' 'sit' *sed expressing the idea of 'sitting down' ειμί *esmi) πέφυκα ΐστημι όρθόω Third, as is well known, Hittite had two verbal paradigms, the /it-conjugation and the mi-conjugation, which represent an early stage. The hiconjugation corresponds to perfective and middle paradigms in the IndoEuropean sister languages, whereas the mi-conjugation corresponds to the active non-perfective paradigms, as the distribution of the endings in the later Indo-European paradigms shows (-m[i], -s[i], t[i]).

Innovations vs. 2). The distinction between archaisms and innovations is not only essential to the reconstruction of the protolanguage, but also to the discussion about the diachronic stages in the history of the individual Indo-European languages. The chapter also examines the correlation of linguistic characteristics - syntactic and morphological - , their motivation, and their implications for the reconstruction of early ProtoIndo-European. It will be argued that the structures that have been discussed in this book and that so far have not been accounted for are related and are archaic.

Animate]. There is indirect evidence for an original dichotomy animate vs. inanimate in a number of grammatical features that reflect the earlier binary distinction, for example, the gender system in Hittite, which is the oldest Indo-European language attested. Instead of a threefold gender distinction, masculine, feminine, and neuter, Hittite displays a grammatical distinction animate (genus commune) vs. inanimate throughout the language and lacks the feminine. That the lack of the feminine gender in Hittite is a residue and not an innovation has been demonstrated by Schmidt (1977) and also Meid (1979:165ff).

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